Although computers are getting more advanced, especially when it comes to wireless technology and connectivity, it will be some time yet until we have a completely wireless office. Therefore most, if not every office desk is going to require at least some basic cable management.
There are several ways in which an existing office desk can be upgraded/altered to accommodate new equipment and cables, it just depends on how far you want to take it and how much you want to spend.
Starting at the top!
If the desk you are working on does not have any access through the surface to the underside, then cable ports can be positioned virtually anywhere to allow cables to pass through. Cable ports themselves are not a very expensive item but you will need to make a hole in the surface which needs to be exact.
Once the cables can pass through the desktop they may need to travel horizontally under the top to either a wall mounted socket or computer processor unit. Steel cable baskets can be fixed anywhere under the desk top and are available in various standard lengths. Power blocks with extension leads can be laid in the horizontal cable basket and can be easily accessed from the under side of the office desk.
If you are using a laptop and constantly need to disconnect from your desk and use your laptop in another location then you could consider using a desk mounted power/data module. These units are situated above the desk top therefore making it much easier to access the power and data sockets rather than getting under the desk whenever you need to reconnect or remove your laptop. The other (more expensive option) is to use a pop-up power module, which takes the same space as a normal cable port and when not being used looks less obtrusive.
To keep cables tidy as they drop down vertically to the floor or the processor unit a flexible cable spine can be attached to the underside of the desk top or clamped to the edge of the desk instead.
If you want to raise your computer processor unit off the floor then you can use one of a variety of under desk mounted CPU holders that can usually be adjusted in both height and width in order to accommodate most processor units, or a floor standing holder on castors that is more flexible and can be repositioned easier. These can usually be located anywhere under the office desk.